Bioprocessing of Chaetoceros calcitrans for the recovery of fucoxanthin using CO2-based alkyl carbamate ionic liquids

Kuan Shiong Khoo, Chien Wei Ooi, Kit Wayne Chew, Su Chern Foo, Pau Loke Show

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31 Citations (Scopus)


Ionic liquids (ILs) have emerged as an alternative solvent used in the bioprocessing of microalgae for recovery of valuable biomolecules. The aim of this work is to extract fucoxanthin from Chaetoceros calcitrants (C. calcitrans) by using the readily distillable CO2-based alkyl carbamate ILs. The degree of cell permeabilization was analysed by the quantification of extracted fucoxanthin and the analyses of cell surface morphology. Among the tested CO2-based alkyl carbamate ILs, diallylammonium diallylcarbamate (DACARB) extraction system gave the maximal yield of fucoxanthin at 17.51 mg/g under the optimal extraction conditions [90% (v/v), 3 min and 25 °C]. Moreover, the extracted fucoxanthin fraction exhibited the satisfactory antioxidant activities. The recyclability of DACARB was demonstrated in the multiple batches of fucoxanthin extraction. Hence, CO2-based alkyl carbamate ILs can prospectively substitute conventional organic solvents in the downstream processing of bioactive compounds from microalgae.

Original languageEnglish
Article number124520
Number of pages7
JournalBioresource Technology
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021


  • Carotenoids
  • Chaetoceros calcitrans
  • CO
  • Extraction
  • Fucoxanthin
  • Ionic liquids

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