Biomarkers regulated by lipid-soluble vitamins in glioblastoma

Dina El-Rabie Osman, Brandon Wee Siang Phon, Muhamad Noor Alfarizal Kamarudin, Stephen Navendran Ponnampalam, Ammu Kutty Radhakrishnan, Saatheeyavaane Bhuvanendran

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review


Glioblastoma (GBM), a highly lethal form of adult malignant gliomas with little clinical advancement, raises the need for alternative therapeutic approaches. Lipid-soluble vitamins have gained attention in malignant brain tumors owing to their pleiotropic properties and their anti-cancer potential have been reported in a number of human GBM cell lines. The aim of this paper is to systematically review and describe the roles of various biomarkers regulated by lipid-soluble vitamins, such as vitamins A, D, E, and K, in the pathophysiology of GBM. Briefly, research articles published between 2005 and 2021 were systematically searched and selected from five databases (Scopus, PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE via Ovid, and Web of Science) based on the study's inclusion and exclusion criteria. In addition, a number of hand-searched research articles identified from Google Scholar were also included for the analysis. A total of 40 differentially expressed biomarkers were identified from the 19 eligible studies. The results from the analysis suggest that retinoids activate cell differentiation and suppress the biomarkers responsible for stemness in human GBM cells. Vitamin D appears to preferentially modulate several cell cycle biomarkers, while vitamin E derivatives seem to predominantly modulate biomarkers related to apoptosis. However, vitamin K1 did not appear to induce any significant changes to the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling or apoptotic pathways in human GBM cell lines. From the systematic analysis, 12 biomarkers were identified that may be of interest for further studies, as these were modulated by one or two of these lipid-soluble vitamins.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2873
Number of pages19
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jul 2022


  • biomarkers
  • glioblastoma cell lines
  • lipid-soluble vitamins
  • molecular mechanisms

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