Biofilm formation by staphylococci in health-related environments and recent reports on their control using natural compounds

Yi Yi Yong, Gary A. Dykes, Wee Sim Choo

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

38 Citations (Scopus)


Staphylococci are Gram-positive bacteria that are ubiquitous in the environment and able to form biofilms on a range of surfaces. They have been associated with a range of human health issues such as medical device-related infection, localized skin infection, or direct infection caused by toxin production. The extracellular material produced by these bacteria resists antibiotics and host defence mechanism which complicates the treatment process. The commonly reported Staphylococcus species are Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis as they inhabit human bodies. However, the emergence of other staphylococci, such as S. haemolyticus, S. lugdunensis, S. saprophyticus, S. capitis, S. saccharolyticus, S. warneri, S. cohnii, and S. hominis, is also of concern and they have been associated with biofilm formation. This review critically assesses recent cases on the biofilm formation by S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and other staphylococci reported in health-related environments. The control of biofilm formation by staphylococci using natural compounds is specifically discussed as they represent potential anti-biofilm agents which may reduce the burden of antibiotic resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)201-222
Number of pages22
JournalCritical Reviews in Microbiology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 4 Mar 2019


  • Anti-biofilm
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • bacteriocin
  • coagulase-negative staphylococci
  • Staphylococcus biofilm

Cite this