Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is one of the most aggressive types of breast cancer. Owing to the absenteeism of hormonal receptors expressed at the cancerous breast cells, hormonal therapies and other medications targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) are ineffective in TNBC patients, making traditional chemotherapeutic agents the only current appropriate regimen. Patients’ predisposition to relapse and metastasis, chemotherapeutics’ cytotoxicity and resistance and poor prognosis of TNBC necessitates researchers to investigate different novel-targeted therapeutics. The role of small interfering RNA (siRNA) in silencing the genes/proteins that are aberrantly overexpressed in carcinoma cells showed great potential as part of TNBC therapeutic regimen. However, targeting specificity, siRNA stability, and delivery efficiency cause challenges in the progression of this application clinically. Nanotechnology was highlighted as a promising approach for encapsulating and transporting siRNA with high efficiency-low toxicity profile. Advances in preclinical and clinical studies utilizing engineered siRNA-loaded nanotherapeutics for treatment of TNBC were discussed. Specific and selective targeting of diverse signaling molecules/pathways at the level of tumor proliferation and cell cycle, tumor invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis and tumor microenvironment, and chemotherapeutics’ resistance demonstrated greater activity via integration of siRNA-complexed nanoparticles.
- Gene silencing
- RNA interference
- Small interfering RNA (siRNA), nanotechnology
- Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC)