Biodegradable fumarate-based polyHIPEs as tissue engineering scaffolds

Elizabeth M. Christenson, Wafa Soofi, Jennifer L. Holm, Neil R. Cameron, Antonios G. Mikos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

122 Citations (Scopus)


PolyHIPEs show great promise as tissue engineering scaffolds due to the tremendous control of pore size and interconnectivity afforded by this technique. Highly porous, fully biodegradable scaffolds were prepared by polymerization of the continuous phase of high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs) containing the macromer poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) and the cross-linker propylene fumarate diacrylate (PFDA). Toluene was used as a diluent to reduce the viscosity of the organic phase to enable HIPE formation. A range of polyHIPE scaffolds of different pore sizes and morphologies were generated by varying the diluent concentration (40-60 wt %), cross-linker concentration (25-75 wt %), and macromer molecular weight (Mn = 800-1000 g/mol). Although some formulations resulted in macroporous monoliths (pore diameter >500 μm), the majority of the polyHIPEs studied were rigid, microporous monoliths with average pore diameters in the range 10-300 μm. Gravimetric analysis confirmed the porosity of the microporous monoliths as 80-89% with most scaffolds above 84%. These studies demonstrate that emulsion templating can be used to generate rigid, biodegradable scaffolds with highly interconnected pores suitable for tissue engineering scaffolds.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3806-3814
Number of pages9
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2007
Externally publishedYes

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