Bile sensing: The activation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus virulence

Vengadesh Letchumanan, Kok Gan Chan, Tahir M. Khan, Sarah I. Bukhari, Nurul Syakima Ab Mutalib, Bey Hing Goh, Learn Han Lee

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    13 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Bacteria must develop resistance to various inhospitable conditions in order to survive in the human gastrointestinal tract. Bile, which is secreted by the liver, and plays an important role in food digestion also has antimicrobial properties and is able to disrupt cellular homeostasis. Paradoxically, although bile is one of the guts defenses, many studies have reported that bacteria such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus can sense bile and use its presence as an environmental cue to upregulate virulence genes during infection. This article aims to discuss how bile is detected by V. parahaemolyticus and its role in regulating type III secretion system 2 leading to human infection. This bile-bacteria interaction pathway gives us a clearer understanding of the biochemical and structural analysis of the bacterial receptors involved in mediating a response to bile salts which appear to be a significant environmental cue during initiation of an infection.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number728
    Number of pages6
    JournalFrontiers in Microbiology
    Volume8
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 21 Apr 2017

    Keywords

    • Bacteria
    • Bile
    • Human gastrointestinal tract
    • Type III secretion system 2
    • Vibrio parahaemolyticus

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