Beyond Salamanca: a citation analysis of the CRPD/GC4 relative to the Salamanca Statement in inclusive and special education research

Linda J. Graham, Marijne Medhurst, Catia Malaquias, Haley Tancredi, Catriona de Bruin, Jenna Gillett-Swan, Shiralee Poed, Ilektra Spandagou, Suzanne Carrington, Kathy Cologon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


More than two decades ago, UNESCO’s (1994) Salamanca Statement and Framework for Action on Special Needs Education galvanised the inclusion movement by providing a framework for inclusive education. The Statement succeeded in raising awareness of the concept of inclusion internationally, yet genuine inclusion is still the exception and not the norm. This is despite inclusive education being a fundamental human right under the United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2008; CRPD in July 2008) adopted by the United Nations in 2006 as an international treaty and ratified by 181 countries that are legally bound to uphold its terms. In this paper, we examine education scholars’ uptake of the CRPD and GC4, relative to the Salamanca Statement, by conducting a citation analysis of literature published in journals from the fields of inclusive and special education between 1994 and 2019. We then look at how each document has been used in the literature over time and conclude with strategies to help improve knowledge of the CRPD / GC4 within education and discuss how these documents can be used to progress inclusive education internationally.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)123-145
Number of pages23
JournalInternational Journal of Inclusive Education
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • citation practices
  • disability
  • human rights
  • Inclusive education

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