Betacyanin-inhibited biofilm formation of co-culture of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa on different polymer surfaces

Yi Yi Yong, Michelle Wei Kim Ong, Gary Dykes, Wee Sim Choo

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Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are bacteria that cause biofilm-associated infections. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of combined betacyanin fractions from Amaranthus dubius (red spinach) and Hylocereus polyrhizus (red pitahaya) against biofilms formed by co-culture of S. aureus and P. aeruginosa on different polymer surfaces. Various formulations containing different concentrations of the betacyanin fractions were investigated for biofilm-inhibiting activity on polystyrene surfaces using crystal violet assay and scanning electron microscopy. A combination of each betacyanin fraction (0.625 mg mL-1) reduced biofilm formation of five S. aureus strains and four P. aeruginosa strains from optical density values of 1.24-3.84 and 1.25-3.52 to 0.81-2.63 and 0.80-1.71, respectively. These combined fractions also significantly inhibited dual-species biofilms by 2.30 and reduced 1.0-1.3 log CFU cm-2 bacterial attachment on polymer surfaces such as polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene, polypropylene and silicone rubber. This study demonstrated an increase in biofilm-inhibiting activity against biofilms formed by two species using combined fractions than that by using single fractions. Betacyanins found in different plants could collectively be used to potentially decrease the risk of biofilm-associated infections caused by these bacteria on hydrophobic polymers.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberfnaa214
Number of pages9
JournalFEMS Microbiology Letters
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021


  • Amaranthus
  • anti-biofilm
  • bacterial attachment
  • betalain
  • biofilm inhibition
  • Hylocereus polyrhizus

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