Behaviorally-determined sleep phenotypes are robustly associated with adaptive functioning in individuals with low functioning autism

Simonne Cohen, Ben D. Fulcher, Shantha M.W. Rajaratnam, Russell Conduit, Jason P. Sullivan, Melissa A.St Hilaire, Andrew J. Phillips, Tobias Loddenkemper, Sanjeev V. Kothare, Kelly McConnell, William Ahearn, Paula Braga-Kenyon, Andrew Shlesinger, Jacqueline Potter, Frank Bird, Kim M. Cornish, Steven W. Lockley

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Despite sleep disturbance being a common complaint in individuals with autism, specific sleep phenotypes and their relationship to adaptive functioning have yet to be identified. This study used cluster analysis to find distinct sleep patterns and relate them to independent measures of adaptive functioning in individuals with autism. Approximately 50,000 nights of care-giver sleep/wake logs were collected on school-days for 106 individuals with low functioning autism (87 boys, 14.77 ± 3.11 years) for 0.5-6 years (2.2 ± 1.5 years) from two residential schools. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, performed on summary statistics of each individual across their recording duration, two clusters of individuals with clearly distinguishable sleep phenotypes were found. The groups were summarized as 'unstable' sleepers (cluster 1, n = 41) and 'stable' sleepers (cluster 2, n = 65), with the former exhibiting reduced sleep duration, earlier sleep offset, and less stability in sleep timing. The sleep clusters displayed significant differences in properties that were not used for clustering, such as intellectual functioning, communication, and socialization, demonstrating that sleep phenotypes are associated with symptom severity in individuals with autism. This study provides foundational evidence for profiling and targeting sleep as a standard part of therapeutic intervention in individuals with autism.

Original languageEnglish
Article number14228
Number of pages8
JournalScientific Reports
Volume7
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Dec 2017

Keywords

  • human behaviour
  • paediatric research

Cite this

Cohen, Simonne ; Fulcher, Ben D. ; Rajaratnam, Shantha M.W. ; Conduit, Russell ; Sullivan, Jason P. ; Hilaire, Melissa A.St ; Phillips, Andrew J. ; Loddenkemper, Tobias ; Kothare, Sanjeev V. ; McConnell, Kelly ; Ahearn, William ; Braga-Kenyon, Paula ; Shlesinger, Andrew ; Potter, Jacqueline ; Bird, Frank ; Cornish, Kim M. ; Lockley, Steven W. / Behaviorally-determined sleep phenotypes are robustly associated with adaptive functioning in individuals with low functioning autism. In: Scientific Reports. 2017 ; Vol. 7, No. 1.
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title = "Behaviorally-determined sleep phenotypes are robustly associated with adaptive functioning in individuals with low functioning autism",
abstract = "Despite sleep disturbance being a common complaint in individuals with autism, specific sleep phenotypes and their relationship to adaptive functioning have yet to be identified. This study used cluster analysis to find distinct sleep patterns and relate them to independent measures of adaptive functioning in individuals with autism. Approximately 50,000 nights of care-giver sleep/wake logs were collected on school-days for 106 individuals with low functioning autism (87 boys, 14.77 ± 3.11 years) for 0.5-6 years (2.2 ± 1.5 years) from two residential schools. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, performed on summary statistics of each individual across their recording duration, two clusters of individuals with clearly distinguishable sleep phenotypes were found. The groups were summarized as 'unstable' sleepers (cluster 1, n = 41) and 'stable' sleepers (cluster 2, n = 65), with the former exhibiting reduced sleep duration, earlier sleep offset, and less stability in sleep timing. The sleep clusters displayed significant differences in properties that were not used for clustering, such as intellectual functioning, communication, and socialization, demonstrating that sleep phenotypes are associated with symptom severity in individuals with autism. This study provides foundational evidence for profiling and targeting sleep as a standard part of therapeutic intervention in individuals with autism.",
keywords = "human behaviour, paediatric research",
author = "Simonne Cohen and Fulcher, {Ben D.} and Rajaratnam, {Shantha M.W.} and Russell Conduit and Sullivan, {Jason P.} and Hilaire, {Melissa A.St} and Phillips, {Andrew J.} and Tobias Loddenkemper and Kothare, {Sanjeev V.} and Kelly McConnell and William Ahearn and Paula Braga-Kenyon and Andrew Shlesinger and Jacqueline Potter and Frank Bird and Cornish, {Kim M.} and Lockley, {Steven W.}",
year = "2017",
month = "12",
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Cohen, S, Fulcher, BD, Rajaratnam, SMW, Conduit, R, Sullivan, JP, Hilaire, MAS, Phillips, AJ, Loddenkemper, T, Kothare, SV, McConnell, K, Ahearn, W, Braga-Kenyon, P, Shlesinger, A, Potter, J, Bird, F, Cornish, KM & Lockley, SW 2017, 'Behaviorally-determined sleep phenotypes are robustly associated with adaptive functioning in individuals with low functioning autism' Scientific Reports, vol. 7, no. 1, 14228. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-14611-6

Behaviorally-determined sleep phenotypes are robustly associated with adaptive functioning in individuals with low functioning autism. / Cohen, Simonne; Fulcher, Ben D.; Rajaratnam, Shantha M.W.; Conduit, Russell; Sullivan, Jason P.; Hilaire, Melissa A.St; Phillips, Andrew J.; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Kothare, Sanjeev V.; McConnell, Kelly; Ahearn, William; Braga-Kenyon, Paula; Shlesinger, Andrew; Potter, Jacqueline; Bird, Frank; Cornish, Kim M.; Lockley, Steven W.

In: Scientific Reports, Vol. 7, No. 1, 14228, 01.12.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

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AU - Fulcher, Ben D.

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AU - Conduit, Russell

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AU - Hilaire, Melissa A.St

AU - Phillips, Andrew J.

AU - Loddenkemper, Tobias

AU - Kothare, Sanjeev V.

AU - McConnell, Kelly

AU - Ahearn, William

AU - Braga-Kenyon, Paula

AU - Shlesinger, Andrew

AU - Potter, Jacqueline

AU - Bird, Frank

AU - Cornish, Kim M.

AU - Lockley, Steven W.

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N2 - Despite sleep disturbance being a common complaint in individuals with autism, specific sleep phenotypes and their relationship to adaptive functioning have yet to be identified. This study used cluster analysis to find distinct sleep patterns and relate them to independent measures of adaptive functioning in individuals with autism. Approximately 50,000 nights of care-giver sleep/wake logs were collected on school-days for 106 individuals with low functioning autism (87 boys, 14.77 ± 3.11 years) for 0.5-6 years (2.2 ± 1.5 years) from two residential schools. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, performed on summary statistics of each individual across their recording duration, two clusters of individuals with clearly distinguishable sleep phenotypes were found. The groups were summarized as 'unstable' sleepers (cluster 1, n = 41) and 'stable' sleepers (cluster 2, n = 65), with the former exhibiting reduced sleep duration, earlier sleep offset, and less stability in sleep timing. The sleep clusters displayed significant differences in properties that were not used for clustering, such as intellectual functioning, communication, and socialization, demonstrating that sleep phenotypes are associated with symptom severity in individuals with autism. This study provides foundational evidence for profiling and targeting sleep as a standard part of therapeutic intervention in individuals with autism.

AB - Despite sleep disturbance being a common complaint in individuals with autism, specific sleep phenotypes and their relationship to adaptive functioning have yet to be identified. This study used cluster analysis to find distinct sleep patterns and relate them to independent measures of adaptive functioning in individuals with autism. Approximately 50,000 nights of care-giver sleep/wake logs were collected on school-days for 106 individuals with low functioning autism (87 boys, 14.77 ± 3.11 years) for 0.5-6 years (2.2 ± 1.5 years) from two residential schools. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, performed on summary statistics of each individual across their recording duration, two clusters of individuals with clearly distinguishable sleep phenotypes were found. The groups were summarized as 'unstable' sleepers (cluster 1, n = 41) and 'stable' sleepers (cluster 2, n = 65), with the former exhibiting reduced sleep duration, earlier sleep offset, and less stability in sleep timing. The sleep clusters displayed significant differences in properties that were not used for clustering, such as intellectual functioning, communication, and socialization, demonstrating that sleep phenotypes are associated with symptom severity in individuals with autism. This study provides foundational evidence for profiling and targeting sleep as a standard part of therapeutic intervention in individuals with autism.

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