Bathroom greywater recycling using polyelectrolyte-complex bilayer membrane: advanced study of membrane structure and treatment efficiency

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Polyelectrolyte-complex bilayer membrane (PCBM) was fabricated using biodegradable chitosan and alginate polymers for subsequent application in the treatment of bathroom greywater. In this study, the properties of PCBMs were studied and it was found that the formation of polyelectrolyte network reduced the molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) from 242 kDa in chitosan membrane to 2.71 kDa in PCBM. The decrease in MWCO of PCBM results in better greywater treatment efficiency, subsequently demonstrated in a greywater filtration study where treated greywater effluent met the household reclaimed water standard of <2 NTU turbidity and <30 ppm total suspended solids (TSS). In addition, a further 20% improvement in chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was achieved as compared to a single layer chitosan membrane. Results from this study show that the biodegradable PCBM is a potential membrane material in producing clean treated greywater for non-potable applications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)161-170
Number of pages10
JournalCarbohydrate Polymers
Publication statusPublished - 5 Sept 2016


  • Alginate
  • Bilayer membrane
  • Chitosan
  • Filtration
  • Greywater
  • Molecular cut-off

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