Basal glucose turnover in Psammomys obesus - An animal model of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

R. C. Habito, M. Barnett, A. Yamamoto, D. Cameron-Smith, K. O'Dea, P. Zimmet, G. R. Collier

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine wholebody glucose turnover and glucose uptake into individual tissues in Psammomys obesus. The animals were classi-fied according to the level of circulating glucose and insulin in the fed state: group A was normoglycaemic and normoinsulinaemic (glucose <8.0 mmol/l, insulin <150 mU/l), group B was normoglycaemic and hyperinsulinaemic (glucose <8.0 mmol/l, insulin ≥150 mU/l), and group C was hyperglycaemic and hyperinsulinaemic (glucose ≥8.0 mmol/l, insulin ≥ 150 mU/l). The animals were deprived of food for 6 h, after which they were anaesthetized and cannulated, using the jugular vein for infusions and the carotid artery for blood sampling. Whole-body glucose turnover was measured using a primed-continuous infusion of 6-[3H]-glucose and saline to quantitatively assess hepatic glucose production (HGP), glucose disposal (Rd), and the metabolic clearance rate of glucose (MCR). Following the 2-h infusion period, the glucose metabolic index (Rg′) of individual tissues was measured using a fixed-dose bolus of 2-deoxy-[14C]glucose. Under the steady-state conditions of the experiment, HGP was assumed to be equal to Rd, and both variables were found to be significantly correlated to the fasting glucose concentration (r=0.534, P<0.05, n=19). On the other hand, MCR was found to be inversely correlated to the fasting plasma glucose concentration (r=0.670, P<0.01, n=19). When the animals were divided into three groups as described above, HGP in group C animals was significantly elevated compared with group A (20.8±2.6 vs 12.7±0.6 mg · kg-1 · min-1;P<0.05), and MCR showed a tendency to be lower in group C than group A, although the difference was not statistically significant. HGP and MCR were not significantly different between groups A and B. Measurement of the glucose metabolic index in individual tissues showed that group C animals had significantly higher Rg′ values in muscles and adipse tissues compared with those in group A (P<0.05). In addition, Rg′ in group B white gastrocnemius and soleus were significantly higher than in group A despite similar rates of HGP and levels of glycaemia. These findings suggest that an early increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake and hyperinsulinaemia can be demonstrated in group B Psammomysobesus before significant hyperglycaemia.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)187-192
Number of pages6
JournalActa Diabetologica
Volume32
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 1995
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Basal glucose turnover
  • Hyperglycaemia
  • Hyperinsulinaemia
  • Psammomys obesus
  • Type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus

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