In this paper, we formulate and analyze a perturbed formulation of the balancing domain decomposition by constraints (BDDC) method. We prove that the perturbed BDDC has the same polylogarithmic bound for the condition number as the standard formulation. Two types of properly scaled zero-order perturbations are considered: one uses a mass matrix, and the other uses a Robin-type boundary condition, i.e, a mass matrix on the interface. With perturbation, the wellposedness of the local Neumann problems and the global coarse problem is automatically guaranteed, and coarse degrees of freedom can be defined only for convergence purposes but not well-posedness. This allows a much simpler implementation as no complicated corner selection algorithm is needed. Minimal coarse spaces using only face or edge constraints can also be considered. They are very useful in extreme scale calculations where the coarse problem is usually the bottleneck that can jeopardize scalability. The perturbation also adds extra robustness as the perturbed formulation works even when the constraints fail to eliminate a small number of subdomain rigid body modes from the standard BDDC space. This is extremely important when solving problems on unstructured meshes partitioned by automatic graph partitioners since arbitrary disconnected subdomains are possible. Numerical results are provided to support the theoretical findings.
- Coarse space
- Parallel solver