Back-contact perovskite solar cell fabrication via microsphere lithography

Siqi Deng, Boer Tan, Anthony S.R. Chesman, Jianfeng Lu, David P. McMeekin, Qingdong Ou, Andrew D. Scully, Sonia R. Raga, Kevin J. Rietwyk, Anton Weissbach, Boya Zhao, Nicolas H. Voelcker, Yi Bing Cheng, Xiongfeng Lin, Udo Bach

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Back-contact electrodes for hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite solar cells (PSCs) eliminate the parasitic absorption losses caused by the transparent conductive electrodes that are inherent to conventional sandwich-architecture devices. However, the fabrication methods for these unconventional architectures rely heavily on expensive photolithography, which limits scalability. Herein, we present an alternative cost-effective microfabrication technique in which the conventional photolithography process is replaced by microsphere lithography in which a close-packed polystyrene microsphere monolayer acts as the patterning mask for the honeycomb-shaped electrodes. A comprehensive comparison between photolithography and microsphere lithography fabrication techniques was conducted. Using microsphere lithography, we achieve highly efficient devices having a stabilized power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 8.6%, twice the reported value using photolithography. Microsphere lithography also enabled the fabrication of the largest back-contact PSC to date, having an active area of 0.75 cm2 and a stabilized PCE of 2.44%.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107695
Number of pages11
JournalNano Energy
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022


  • Back-contact electrodes
  • Charge transport distance
  • Honeycomb-shaped
  • Microsphere lithography
  • Perovskite solar cells
  • Scalability

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