Babesiosis Vaccines: Lessons Learned, Challenges Ahead, and Future Glimpses

Vignesh Rathinasamy, William A. Poole, Reginaldo G. Bastos, Carlos E. Suarez, Brian M. Cooke

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The incidence and prevalence of babesiosis in animals and humans is increasing, yet prevention, control, or treatment measures remain limited and ineffective. Despite a growing body of new knowledge of the biology, pathogenicity, and virulence of Babesia parasites, there is still no well-defined, adequately effective and easily deployable vaccine. While numerous published studies suggest that the development of such anti-Babesia vaccines should be feasible, many others identify significant challenges that need to be overcome in order to succeed. Here, we review historic and recent attempts in babesiosis vaccine discovery to avoid past pitfalls, learn new lessons, and provide a roadmap to guide the development of next-generation babesiosis vaccines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)622-635
Number of pages14
JournalTrends in Parasitology
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2019


  • antigen discovery
  • Babesia
  • babesiosis
  • immune responses
  • subunit vaccines
  • vaccine development

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