Average theoretical peak time as a metric to analytical speed in one dimensional and multidimensional gas chromatographic separations

Carin von Mühlen, Luciana N.R. Mangelli, Philip J. Marriott

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The definition of a chromatographic analysis speed based simply on analysis time is an outdated concept to define conventional chromatography, fast chromatography, and emerging high-resolution techniques such as comprehensive two-dimensional and comprehensive three-dimensional gas chromatography. Here, the metric average theoretical peak time (ATPT) is proposed for separation speed, considering conventional and multidimensional separations. ATPT can be defined as the time (in ms per peak) needed to elute a theoretical peak in a chromatographic system. Using this metric, it is possible to define ranges, proposed for a normal speed (ATPT higher than 4000 ms/peak), high speed (ATPT range from 600 to 4000 ms/peak), very high speed (ATPT range from 200 to 600 ms/peak), hyper speed (ATPT range from 3.3 to 200 ms/peak) and ultra high speed chromatography (ATPT lower than 3.3 ms/peak), that combines time and efficiency metrics. This metric was applied in several contexts to demonstrate its robustness to evaluate chromatographic separations for different techniques and analytical conditions. Applications also demonstrate the advantages of the use of ATPT as a method development metric tool.

Original languageEnglish
Article number462887
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Chromatography A
Publication statusPublished - 29 Mar 2022


  • ATPT
  • Chromatographic speed
  • Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography
  • Fast chromatography
  • GC × GC
  • Peak capacity

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