Authority tools, namely licenses, permits, certificates, registration and accreditation, are amongst the oldest and most pervasive forms of regulation involving all levels of government. This chapter examines the various forms of authorization, the reasons for their enduring popularity, the relationship between private authorizers and government, their effects on competition and the burdens they impose on regulatees. With the ‘de-centering’ of the state, the increasing involvement of private parties in regulation and the growth of digital technologies able to address information asymmetries, the changing nature of authority tools is discussed as the role of government adapts to incorporate, supervise or authorize emerging modes of authorization.
|Title of host publication||Routledge Handbook of Policy Design|
|Editors||Michael Howlett, Ishani Mukherjee|
|Place of Publication||New York NY USA|
|Number of pages||18|
|ISBN (Electronic)||9781351252911, 9781351252904, 9781351252898, 9781351252928|
|Publication status||Published - 2018|