Australia's power system frequency: Current situation, industrial challenges, efforts, and future research directions

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleOtherpeer-review


This industry-oriented paper presents an overview and in-depth analysis of previous and current situations of power system frequency response and control in the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) power system. It provides a comprehensive understanding of frequency support services in the NEM and their corresponding market and energy governance bodies and control mechanisms. The evaluation of different services and frequency control ancillary services (FCASs) provided by different electricity market players under the supervision of the Australian Energy Market Operator (AEMO) as an independent system operator provides lessons and an understanding of the current operation status with its real challenges and opportunities from frequency stability and security perspectives. Based on the evaluation of the current situation and future national planning, such as the integrated system plan (ISP), a number of research gaps and industrial technical issues are identified. The paper also presents perspectives on future research directions to help the power system transformation toward almost 100% renewable-rich and more secure energy systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5204-5218
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - May 2024


  • Australia
  • Australian Electricity Market Operator (AEMO)
  • Electricity supply industry
  • Frequency control
  • frequency response
  • Nanoelectromechanical systems
  • National Electricity Market (NEM)
  • Power system stability
  • power system transformation
  • Renewable energy sources
  • Security

Cite this