We present an alternative atomic resolution incoherent imaging technique derived from scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) using detectors in real space, in contrast to conventional STEM that uses detectors in diffraction space. The images obtained from various specimens have a resolution comparable to conventional high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) STEM with good contrast, which seems to be very robust with respect to thickness, focus and imaging conditions. The results of the simulations are consistent with the experimental results and support the interpretation of the real-space STEM image contrast as being a result of aberration-induced displacements of the high-angle scattered electrons.
Lazar, S., Etheridge, J., Dwyer, C., Freitag, B., & Botton, G. A. (2011). Atomic resolution imaging using the real-space distribution of electrons scattered by a crystalline material. Acta Crystallographica Section A, 67(5), 487 - 490. https://doi.org/10.1107/S0108767311020708