Atomic force microscopy: From red blood cells to immunohaematology

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Atomic force microscopy (AFM) offers complementary imaging modes that can provide morphological and structural details of red blood cells (RBCs), and characterize interactions between specific biomolecules and RBC surface antigen. This review describes the applications of AFM in determining RBC health by the observation of cell morphology, elasticity and surface roughness. Measurement of interaction forces between plasma proteins and antibodies against RBC surface antigen using the AFM also brought new information to the immunohaematology field. With constant improvisation of the AFM in resolution and imaging time, the reaction of RBC to changes in the physico-chemistry of its environment and the presence of RBC surface antigen specific-biomolecules is achievable.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)149-162
Number of pages14
JournalAdvances in Colloid and Interface Science
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2017


  • AFM
  • Atomic force microscopy
  • Force spectroscopy
  • Immunohaematology
  • Red blood cell

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