Atomic- and Molecular-Level Design of Functional Metal–Organic Frameworks (MOFs) and Derivatives for Energy and Environmental Applications

Gamze Yilmaz, Shing Bo Peh, Dan Zhao, Ghim Wei Ho

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

115 Citations (Scopus)


Continuing population growth and accelerated fossil-fuel consumption with recent technological advancements have engendered energy and environmental concerns, urging researchers to develop advanced functional materials to overcome the associated problems. Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have emerged as frontier materials due to their unique porous organic–inorganic hybrid periodic assembly and exceptional diversity in structural properties and chemical functionalities. In particular, the modular nature and modularity-dependent activity of MOFs and MOF derivatives have accentuated the delicate atomic- and molecular design and synthesis of MOFs, and their meticulous conversion into carbons and transition-metal-based materials. Synthetic control over framework architecture, content, and reactivity has led to unprecedented merits relevant to various energy and environmental applications. Herein, an overview of the atomic- and molecular-design strategies of MOFs to realize application-targeted properties is provided. Recent progress on the development of MOFs and MOF derivatives based on these strategies, along with their performance, is summarized with a special emphasis on design–structure and functionality–activity relationships. Next, the respective energy- and environmental-related applications of catalysis and energy storage, as well as gas storage-separation and water harvesting with close association to the energy–water–environment nexus are highlighted. Last, perspectives on current challenges and recommendations for further development of MOF-based materials are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1901129
Number of pages33
JournalAdvanced Science
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • atomic-molecular design
  • energy applications
  • environmental applications
  • metal–organic frameworks
  • reticular chemistry

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