Methods We examined the signal transduction mechanisms of serelaxin when applied to primary rat renal and human cardiac myofibroblasts in vitro, and in three models of renal- or cardiomyopathy-induced fibrosis in vivo.
Results The AT1R blockers irbesartan and candesartan abrogated antifibrotic signal transduction of serelaxin via RXFP1 in vitro and in vivo. Candesartan also ameliorated serelaxin’s antifibrotic actions in the left ventricle of mice with cardiomyopathy, indicating that candesartan’s inhibitory effects were not confined to the kidney. We also demonstrated in a transfected cell system that serelaxin did not directly bind to AT1Rs but that constitutive AT1R–RXFP1 interactions could form. To potentially explain these findings, we also demonstrated that renal and cardiac myofibroblasts expressed all three receptors and that antagonists acting at each receptor directly or allosterically blocked the antifibrotic effects of either serelaxin or an AT2R agonist (compound 21).
Conclusions These findings have significant implications for the concomitant use of RXFP1 or AT2R agonists with AT1R blockers, and suggest that functional interactions between the three receptors on myofibroblasts may represent new targets for controlling fibrosis progression.