Asymptotic capacity of massive MIMO with 1-bit ADCs and 1-bit DACs at the receiver and at the transmitter

Armin Bazrafkan, Nikola Zlatanov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


In this paper, we investigate the capacity of massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems corrupted by complex-valued additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) when both the transmitter and the receiver employ 1-bit digital-to-analog converters (DACs) and 1-bit analog-to-digital-converters (ADCs). As a result of 1-bit DACs and ADCs, the transmitted and received symbols, as well as the transmit- and receive-side noisy channel state information (CSI) are assumed to be quantized to 1-bit of information. The derived results, applicable to both single-user and multi-user MIMO, show that the capacity of the considered massive MIMO system is $2N$ and $2M$ bits per channel use when $N$ is fixed and $M$ goes to infinity and when $M$ is fixed and $N$ goes to infinity, respectively, where $M$ and $N$ denote the number of transmit and receive antennas, respectively. These coincide with the respective capacities with full and noise-free CSI at both the transmitter and the receiver. In both cases, we showed that the derived capacities can be achieved with noisy 1-bit CSI at the massive-side and without any CSI at the other end. Moreover, we showed that the capacity can be achieved in one channel use without employing channel coding, which results in a latency of one channel use.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)152837-152850
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Access
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • 1-bit ADC
  • 1-bit CSI
  • achievability scheme
  • capacity
  • Massive MIMO

Cite this