Associations of residing greenness and long-term exposure to air pollution with glucose homeostasis markers

Jian Hou, Runqi Tu, Yonghui Dong, Xiaotian Liu, Xiaokang Dong, Ruiying Li, Mingming Pan, Shanshan Yin, Kai Hu, Zhenxing Mao, Wenqian Huo, Yuming Guo, Shanshan Li, Gongbo Chen, Chongjian Wang

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Background: Although long-term exposure to higher air pollutants and lower residing greenness related to disorders of glucose homeostasis have been reported, their interaction effects on glucose homeostasis in developing countries remained unclear. Methods: A total of 35, 482 participants were obtained from the Henan Rural Cohort (n = 39, 259). Exposure to air pollutants (PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and NO2) were predicted by using a spatiotemporal model-based on satellites data. Residing greenness was reflected by Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) which were derived from satellites data. Independent associations of single or mixture of air pollutant or residing greenness with glucose homeostasis markers were analyzed by quantile regression models and quantile g (qg)-computation method, respectively. Furthermore, interaction effects of residing greenness and air pollution on glucose homeostasis markers were analyzed by generalized additive models. Results: Positive associations of single or mixture of air pollutants (PM1, PM2.5, PM10 or NO2) with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) were observed, while negative associations of single or mixture of air pollutants with insulin or HOMA-β were observed. Residing greenness was negatively associated with FPG but positively related to insulin or HOMA-β. Quantile regression revealed the heterogeneity were observed in the associations the residing greenness or air pollutants with glucose homeostasis markers (insulin or HOMA-β) across deciles of the glucose homeostasis markers distributions. Furthermore, joint associations of single air pollutant and residing greenness on glucose homeostasis markers were found. Conclusions: The results indicated that exposure to air pollution had negative effect on glucose homeostasis markers and these effects may be modified by living in higher green space. These findings suggest that increased residing greenness and air pollution control may have joint effect on decreased the risk of diabetes. Clinical trial registration: The Henan Rural Cohort study has been registered at Chinese Clinical Trial Register (Registration number: ChiCTR-OOC-15006699,

Original languageEnglish
Article number145834
Number of pages12
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2021


  • Gaseous pollutant
  • Glucose homeostasis
  • Particulate matter
  • Residing greenness
  • Rural population

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