Associations between vitamin D metabolites, antiretroviral therapy and bone mineral density in people with HIV

on behalf of the STEAL Study Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Summary: Rationale: To see if vitamin D and antiretroviral therapy are associated with bone mineral density (BMD) in people with HIV. Result: Lower hip BMD was associated with tenofovir (an antiretroviral medicine) in those with 25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L. Significance: The relationship between antiretroviral therapy and hip BMD differs depending on vitamin D status. 

Introduction: People with HIV have an increased risk of low BMD and fractures. Antiretroviral therapy contributes to this increased risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate associations between vitamin D metabolites and antiretroviral therapy on BMD. 

Methods: The simplification of antiretroviral therapy with tenofovir-emtricitabine or abacavir-lamivudine trial (STEAL) was an open-label, prospective randomised non-inferiority study that compared simplification of current nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) to fixed-dose combination tenofovir-emtricitabine (TDF-FTC) or abacavir-lamivudine. Serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were measured in 160 individuals (90 receiving TDF-FTC, 70 receiving other NRTIs) at baseline from this study. Multivariable linear regression models were constructed to evaluate the covariates of 1,25(OH)2D and BMD. 

Results: Protease inhibitor use (p = 0.02) and higher body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.002) were associated with lower 1,25(OH)2D levels in those with 25(OH)D 2D levels, but only in those with 25(OH)D ≥50 nmol/L. White ethnicity (p = 0.02) and lower BMI (p <0.001) in those with 25(OH)D

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1737-1745
Number of pages9
JournalOsteoporosis International
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2016


  • Antiretroviral therapy
  • Bone
  • HIV
  • Vitamin D

Cite this