The association between the prevalence and geographical distribution of peripheral artery disease (PAD) and chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) in patients with diabetes in the context of socioeconomic deprivation is not well understood. We undertook a retrospective cohort study of 76,307 people with diabetes admitted as a hospital inpatient in a large Scottish health administrative area. Utilising linked health records, we identified diagnoses of PAD and/or CLTI and their distribution using small area cartography techniques according to multiple deprivation maps. Spatial autocorrelation techniques were applied to examine PAD and CLTI patterning. Association between crude inpatient prevalence-adjusted outcome rates and exposure to social deprivation were determined. We found crude prevalence-adjusted rates of 8.05% for PAD and 1.10% for CLTI with a five- to sevenfold difference from the least to most deprived regions. Statistically significant hot spots were found for PAD (p < 0.001) and CLTI (p < 0.001) in the most deprived areas, and cold spots for PAD (p < 0.001) but not CLTI (p = 0.72) in the least deprived areas. Major health disparities in PAD/CLTI diagnoses in people with diabetes is driven by socioeconomic deprivation.
- chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI)
- geospatial mapping
- health disparities
- peripheral artery disease (PAD)
- spatial clustering