Association between plasma antibody responses and risk for Cryptococcus-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

Hyun Ah Yoon, Antonio Nakouzi, Christina C. Chang, Mark Kuniholm, Leandro J. Carreño, Tao Wang, Thumbi Ndung'u, Sharon Ruth Lewin, Martyn A French, Liise-Anne Pirofski

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20 Citations (Scopus)


Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected individuals with cryptococcal meningitis places them at risk for Cryptococcus-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (C-IRIS). The relationship between antibody immunity and C-IRIS risk has not been investigated.

We compared plasma levels of immunoglobulins, Cryptococcus neoformans (CN) glucuronoxylomannan (GXM) capsule-specific and (Lam)inarin-binding IgM and IgG, and percentages of peripheral blood total and memory B cells between 27 HIV-infected patients with CM who developed C-IRIS and 63 who did not and evaluated associations of these parameters with risk of C-IRIS.

Prior to initiation of ART, plasma IgM, Lam-binding IgM (Lam-IgM), Lam-IgG, and GXM-IgM levels were significantly lower in patients who developed C-IRIS than those who did not. Multivariate analysis revealed significant inverse associations between C-IRIS and IgM (P=0.0003), Lam-IgM (P=0.0005), Lam-IgG (P=0.002), and GXM-IgM (P=0.002) independent of age, sex, HIV viral load, CD4+ T cell count and cerebrospinal fluid fungal burden. There were no associations between C-IRIS and total or memory B cells.

Antibody profiles that include plasma IgM, Lam-IgM, Lam-IgG, and/or GXM-IgM, may have value in furthering our understanding of C-IRIS pathogenesis and hold promise as candidate biomarkers of C-IRIS risk.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)420-428
Number of pages9
JournalThe Journal of Infectious Diseases
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2019

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