BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in 6.1%-22.4% of patients undergoing major noncardiac surgery. Previous studies have shown no association between intraoperative urine output and postoperative acute renal failure. However, these studies used various definitions of acute renal failure. We therefore investigated the association between intraoperative oliguria and postoperative AKI defined by the serum creatinine criteria of the Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, and End-stage kidney disease (RIFLE) classification.
METHODS: In this single-center, retrospective, observational study, we screened 26,984 patients undergoing elective or emergency surgery during the period September 1, 2008 to October 31, 2011 at a university hospital. Exclusion criteria were age <18 years; duration of anesthesia <120 minutes; hospital stay <2 nights; local anesthesia only; urologic or cardiac surgery; coexisting end-stage kidney disease; and absence of serum creatinine measurement, intraoperative urine output data, or information regarding intraoperative drug use. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used as the primary analytic method.
RESULTS: A total of 5894 patients were analyzed. The incidence of postoperative AKI was 7.3%. By multivariable analysis, ≥120 minutes of oliguria (odds ratio = 2.104, 95% CI, 1.593-2.778; P < .001) was independently associated with the development of postoperative AKI. After propensity-score matching of patients with ≥120 and <120 minutes of oliguria on baseline characteristics, the incidence of AKI in patients with ≥120 minutes of oliguria (n = 827; 10%) was significantly greater than that in those with <120 minutes of oliguria (n = 827; 4.8%; odds ratio = 2.195, 95% CI, 1.806-2.668; P < .001).
CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to previous studies, we found that intraoperative oliguria is associated with the incidence of AKI after major noncardiac surgery.