A polymorphism of the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1, 10-repeat) is associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and has been linked to an enhanced response to methylphenidate (MPH). One aspect of the attention deficit in ADHD includes a subtle inattention to left space, resembling that seen after right cerebral hemisphere damage. Since left-sided inattention in ADHD may resolve when treated with MPH, we asked whether left-sided inattention in ADHD was related to DAT1 genotype and the therapeutic efficacy of MPH. A total of 43 ADHD children and their parents were genotyped for the DAT1 3′ variable number of tandem repeats polymorphism. The children performed the Landmark Test, a well-validated measure yielding a spatial attentional asymmetry index (leftward to rightward attentional bias). Parents rated their child's response to MPH retrospectively using a three-point scale (no, mediocre or very good response). Additionally, parents used a symptom checklist to rate behavior while on and off medication. A within-family control design determined whether asymmetry indices predicted biased transmission of 10-repeat parental DAT1 alleles and/or response to MPH. It was found that left-sided inattention predicted transmission of the 10-repeat allele from parents to probands and was associated with the severity of ADHD symptomatology. Children rated as achieving a very good response to MPH displayed left-sided inattention, while those rated as achieving a poorer response did not. Our results suggest a subgroup of children with ADHD for whom the 10-repeat DAT1 allele is associated with left-sided inattention. MPH may be most efficacious in this group because it ameliorates a DAT1-mediated hypodopaminergic state.