Electromagnetic time reversal (EMTR) has been shown to be an efficient method for locating faults in ac and dc power grids. In the available literature, the back-propagation medium has been considered to have identical losses as the direct-time medium. However, the telegrapher's equations describing the traveling wave propagation are time-reversal invariant if and only if inverted losses are considered in the back-propagation phase. This paper presents an analysis of the impact of losses on the performance of the EMTR-based fault location method for power networks. In this respect, three back-propagation models are proposed, analyzed, and compared. It is shown that a lossy back-propagation model, for which the wave equations are not rigorously time-reversal invariant, results in accurate fault locations. Finally, an EMTR fault location system based on the lossy back-propagation model and a fast electromagnetic transient simulation platform is developed and its performances validated.
- electromagnetic time reversal
- electromagnetic transients
- Fault location
- telegrapher's equations
- transmission lines