Assessment of outcome measures for cost-utility analysis in depression: mapping depression scales onto the EQ-5D-5L

Thor Gamst-Klaussen, Admassu N Lamu, Gang Chen, Jan Abel Olsen

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9 Citations (Scopus)


Many clinical studies including mental health interventions do not use a health state utility instrument, which is essential for producing quality-adjusted life years. In the absence of such utility instrument, mapping algorithms can be applied to estimate utilities from a disease-specific instrument.

We aim to develop mapping algorithms from two widely used depression scales; the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS-21) and the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10), onto the most widely used health state utility instrument, the EQ-5D-5L, using eight country-specific value sets.

A total of 917 respondents with self-reported depression were recruited to describe their health on the DASS-21 and the K-10 as well as the new five-level version of the EQ-5D, referred to as the EQ-5D-5L. Six regression models were used: ordinary least squares regression, generalised linear models, beta binomial regression, fractional logistic regression model, MM-estimation and censored least absolute deviation. Root mean square error, mean absolute error and r2 were used as model performance criteria to select the optimal mapping function for each country-specific value set.

Fractional logistic regression model was generally preferred in predicting EQ-5D-5L utilities from both DASS-21 and K-10. The only exception was the Japanese value set, where the beta binomial regression performed best.

Mapping algorithms can adequately predict EQ-5D-5L utilities from scores on DASS-21 and K-10. This enables disease-specific data from clinical trials to be applied for estimating outcomes in terms of quality-adjusted life years for use in economic evaluations.

Declaration of interest
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)160-166
Number of pages7
JournalBJPsych Open
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2018


  • cost-effectiveness
  • DASS-21 K-10
  • EQ-5D-5L
  • mapping
  • Statistical methodology

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