Internationally, assessment is acknowledged as a critical aspect of pedagogical practice and accountability systems, and as having a fundamental bearing upon what knowledge and ways of articulating knowledge come to be valued in schools. Teachers assessment literacy is arguably fundamental to their ability to successfully engage with multiple expectations of assessment and to facilitate assessment as a process that continually supports learning. Informed by Hay and Penney s ((2013) Assessment in Physical Education: A Sociocultural Perspective. London: Routledge) assessment literacy framework, a qualitative case study investigation was undertaken with 18 primary physical education teachers in a regional area in Australia to gain insight into their assessment practices. The study utilised informal interviews, survey and document analysis. Primary physical education teachers were shown to be engaging with the comprehension, application, interpretation and critical engagement elements of the assessment literacy framework, albeit with limitations. Assessment practices appear to be embedded in teaching practices but were, in the main, superficial. Data analysis highlighted gaps in knowledge about assessment, a focus on accountability and performance, and a lack of moderation and student engagement in assessment. This study directs attention to the tensions, uncertainties and complexities associated with developing assessment of physical education and the challenges associated with extending quality and efficacy in assessment practices.