Assessing Respiratory Immune Responses to Haemophilus Influenzae

Lovisa Dousha, Roleen Sharma, Steven Lim, James Ngui, Ashley M. Buckle, Paul T. King

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2 Citations (Scopus)


Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) is a prevalent bacterium found in a range of respiratory conditions. A variety of different assays/techniques may be used to assess the respiratory immune/inflammatory response to this bacterium. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy are fluorescence-based technologies that allow detailed characterization of biological responses. Different forms of Hi antigen can be used, including cell wall components, killed/inactivated preparations, and live bacteria. Hi is a fastidious bacterium that requires enriched media but is generally easy to grow in standard laboratory settings. Tissue samples for stimulation with Hi may be obtained from peripheral blood, bronchoscopy, or resected lung (e.g., in patients undergoing surgery for the treatment of lung cancer). Macrophage and neutrophil function may be comprehensively assessed using flow cytometry with a variety of parameters measured, including phagocytosis, reactive oxygen species, and intracellular cytokine production. Lymphocyte function (e.g., T cell and NK cell function) may be specifically assessed using flow cytometry, principally for intracellular cytokine production. Hi infection is a potent inducer of extracellular trap production, both by neutrophils (NETs) and macrophages (METs). Confocal microscopy is arguably the most optimal way to assess NET and MET expression, which may also be used to assess protease activity. Lung immunity to Haemophilus influenzae can be assessed using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere62572
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Visualized Experiments
Publication statusPublished - 29 Jun 2021

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