The adaptor protein ASC (apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD) is known to facilitate caspase-1 activation, which is essential for innate host immunity via the formation of the inflammasome complex, a multiprotein structure responsible for processing IL1β and IL18 into their active moieties. Here, we demonstrated that ASC-deficient CD8+ T cells failed to induce severe graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and had impaired capacity for graft rejection and graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) activity. These effects were inflammasome independent because GVHD lethality was not altered in recipients of caspase-1/11-deficient T cells. We also demonstrated that ASC deficiency resulted in a decrease in cytolytic function, with a reduction in granzyme B secretion and CD107a expression by CD8+ T cells. Altogether, our findings highlight that ASC represents an attractive therapeutic target for improving outcomes of clinical transplantation.