Transcription of type I interferon genes during RNA virus infection requires signal communication between several pattern recognition receptor (PRR)- adaptor complexes located at distinct subcellular membranous compartments and a central cytoplasmic TBK1-interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) kinase-transcription factor module. However, how the cell integrates signal transduction through spatially distinct modules of antiviral signaling pathways is less defined. RIG-I is a major cytosolic PRR involved in the control of several RNA viruses. Here we identify ArfGAP domain-containing protein 2 (ADAP2) as a key novel scaffolding protein that integrates different modules of the RIG-I pathway, located at distinct subcellular locations, and mediates cellular antiviral type I interferon production. ADAP2 served to bridge the mitochondrial membrane-bound upstream RIG-I adaptor MAVS and the downstream cytosolic complex of NEMO (regulatory subunit of TBK1), TBK1, and IRF3, leading to IRF3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, independently, ADAP2 also functioned as a major orchestrator of the interaction of TBK1 with NEMO and IRF3. Mutational and in vitro cell-free reconstituted RIG-I signaling assay-based analyses identified that the ArfGAP domain of ADAP2 mediates the interferon response. TRAF3 acted as a trigger for ADAP2 to recruit RIG-I pathway component proteins into a single macromolecular complex. This study provides important novel insights into the assembly and integration of different modules of antiviral signaling cascades.
- Innate immunity