Are we included? Secondary students’ perception of inclusion climate in their schools

Susanne Schwab, Umesh Sharma, Tim Loreman

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10 Citations (Scopus)


The study examines secondary school students’ perception of the climate in their classrooms with reference to inclusive education. A key objective of the study was also to examine psychometric properties of a newly developed Inclusion Climate Scale (ICS). Data were obtained using a paper-pencil survey in which 699 students (age = 10–17 years) from North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) participated. The results of exploratory factor analysis revealed two factors (Factor I: Teacher Support and Care; Factor II: Emotional Experience). The Inclusion Climate Scale along with the two factors it contains showed satisfactory reliability and validity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)31-39
Number of pages9
JournalTeaching and Teacher Education
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2018


  • Class climate
  • Inclusive education
  • Quality of inclusion
  • School wellbeing
  • Teacher-student relationship

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