Approaches and challenges in the synthesis of three-dimensional covalent-organic frameworks

Xingjian Ma, Timothy F. Scott

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleOtherpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


Covalent organic frameworks, cross-linked crystalline polymers constructed from rigid organic precursors connected by covalent interactions, have emerged as a promising class of nanoporous materials owing to their highly desirable combination of attributes, including facile chemical tunability, structural diversity, and excellent stability. Despite the distinct advantages offered by three-dimensional covalent organic frameworks, research efforts have predominantly focused on the more synthetically-accessible, two-dimensional variants. Here we present an overview of synthetic approaches to yield three-dimensional covalent organic frameworks, identify synthetic obstacles that have hindered progress in the field and recently-employed methods to address them, and propose alternative techniques to circumvent these synthetic challenges.

Original languageEnglish
Article number98
Number of pages15
JournalCommunications Chemistry
Publication statusPublished - 18 Dec 2018
Externally publishedYes

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