Applicability assessment of active safety systems for motorcycles using population-based crash data: cross-country comparison among Australia, Italy, and USA

Paolo Terranova, Morgan E. Dean, Cosimo Lucci, Simone Piantini, Trevor J. Allen, Giovanni Savino, Hampton C. Gabler

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The role of powered two-wheeler (PTW) transport from the perspective of a more sustainable mobility system is undermined by the associated high injury risk due to crashes. Motorcycle-based active safety systems promise to avoid or mitigate many of these crashes suffered by PTW riders. Despite this, most systems are still only in the prototype phase and understanding which systems have the greatest chance of reducing crashes is an important step in prioritizing their de-velopment. Earlier studies have examined the applicability of these systems to individual crash configurations, e.g., rear-end vs. intersection crashes. However, there may be large regional differences in the distribution of PTW crash configurations, motorcycle types, and road systems, and hence in the priority for the development of systems. The study objective is to compare the applicability of five active safety systems for PTWs in Australia, Italy, and the US using real-world crash data from each region. The analysis found stark differences in the expected applicability of the systems across the three regions. ABS generally resulted in the most applicable system, with estimated applicability in 45–60% of all crashes. In contrast, in 20–30% of the crashes in each country, none of the safety systems analyzed were found to be applicable. This has important implications for manufacturers and researchers, but also for regulators, which may demand country-specific minimum performance requirements for PTW active safety countermeasures.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7563
Number of pages20
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • antilock braking (ABS)
  • autonomous emergency braking (MAEB)
  • collision warning
  • curve assist
  • curve warning
  • motorcycle
  • powered two-wheelers (PTWs)
  • safety systems

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