Antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia: synthesis of world-wide guidelines and integrated recommendations for assessment, management and future research

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Rationale: Hyperprolactinemia is a highly prevalent adverse effect of many antipsychotic agents, with potentially serious health consequences. Several guidelines have been developed for the management of this condition; yet, their concordance has not been evaluated. Objectives: The objectives of this paper were (1) to review current clinical guidelines; (2) to review key systematic evidence for management; and (3) based on our findings, to develop an integrated management recommendation specific to male and female patients who are otherwise clinically stabilised on antipsychotics. Methods: We performed searches of Medline and EMBASE, supplemented with guideline-specific database and general web searches, to identify clinical guidelines containing specific recommendations for antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia, produced/updated 01/01/2010–15/09/2016. A separate systematic search was performed to identify emerging management approaches described in reviews and meta-analyses published ≥ 2010. Results: There is some consensus among guidelines relating to baseline PRL screening (8/12 guidelines), screening for differential diagnosis (7/12) and discontinuing/switching PRL-raising agent (7/12). Guidelines otherwise diverge substantially regarding most aspects of screening, monitoring and management (e.g. treatment with dopamine agonists). There is an omission of clear sex-specific recommendations. Systematic literature on management approaches is promising; more research is needed. An integrated management recommendation is presented to guide sex-specific clinical response to antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. Key aspects include asymptomatic hyperprolactinemia monitoring and fertility considerations with PRL normalisation. Conclusion: Further empirical work is key to shaping robust guidelines for antipsychotic-induced hyperprolactinemia. The integrated management recommendation can assist clinician and patient decision-making, with the goal of balancing effective psychiatric treatment while minimising PRL-related adverse health effects in male and female patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3279-3297
Number of pages19
Issue number22
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2017


  • Antipsychotic
  • Clinical guidelines
  • Hyperprolactinemia
  • Prolactin
  • Psychiatric treatment

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