Antimicrobial pharmacokinetics and preclinical in vitro models to support optimized treatment approaches for uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections

Iain J. Abbott, Jason A. Roberts, Joseph Meletiadis, Anton Y. Peleg

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are extremely common. Millions of people, particularly healthy women, are affected worldwide every year. One-in-two women will have a recurrence within 12-months of an initial UTI. Inadequate treatment risks worsening infection leading to acute pyelonephritis, bacteremia and sepsis. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, it is critical to provide optimized antimicrobial treatment. Areas covered: Literature was searched using PubMed and Google Scholar (up to 06/2020), examining the etiology, diagnosis and oral antimicrobial therapy for uncomplicated UTIs, with emphasis on urinary antimicrobial pharmacokinetics (PK) and the application of dynamic in vitro models for the pharmacodynamic (PD) profiling of pathogen response. Expert opinion: The majority of antimicrobial agents included in international guidelines were developed decades ago without well-described dose–response relationships. Microbiology laboratories still apply standard diagnostic methodology that has essentially remained unchanged for decades. Furthermore, it is uncertain how relevant standard in vitro susceptibility is for predicting antimicrobial efficacy in urine. In order to optimize UTI treatments, clinicians must exploit the urine-specific PK of antimicrobial agents. Dynamic in vitro models are valuable tools to examine the PK/PD and urodynamic variables associated with UTIs, while informing uropathogen susceptibility reporting, optimized dosing schedules, clinical trials and treatment guidelines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)271-295
Number of pages25
JournalExpert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Antimicrobial resistance
  • drug development
  • in vitro infection models
  • pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics
  • urinary tract infection

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