Antimicrobial peptides: An update on classifications and databases

Ahmer Bin Hafeez, Xukai Jiang, Phillip J. Bergen, Yan Zhu

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are distributed across all kingdoms of life and are an in-dispensable component of host defenses. They consist of predominantly short cationic peptides with a wide variety of structures and targets. Given the ever-emerging resistance of various pathogens to existing antimicrobial therapies, AMPs have recently attracted extensive interest as potential therapeutic agents. As the discovery of new AMPs has increased, many databases specializing in AMPs have been developed to collect both fundamental and pharmacological information. In this review, we summarize the sources, structures, modes of action, and classifications of AMPs. Additionally, we examine current AMP databases, compare valuable computational tools used to predict antimi-crobial activity and mechanisms of action, and highlight new machine learning approaches that can be employed to improve AMP activity to combat global antimicrobial resistance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11691
Number of pages52
JournalInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
Issue number21
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2021


  • Antimicrobial peptide
  • Database
  • HMM
  • Machine learning
  • Mode of action
  • Structure

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