Antifungal therapy and management of complications of cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus gattii

Sharon C A Chen, Tony Korman, Monica Slavin, Deborah Marriott, Karen Byth, Narin Bak, Bart J Currie, Krispin Hajkowicz, Christopher Heath, Sarah E Kidd, William John McBride, Wieland Meyer, Ronan Murray, Geoffrey Playford, Tania Christine Sorrell

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We describe antifungal therapy and management of complications due to Cryptococcus gattii infection in 86 Australian patients followed for at least 12 months. Methods. Patient data from culture-confirmed cases (2000-2007) were recorded at diagnosis, 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months. Clinical, laboratory, and treatment variables associated with raised intracranial pressure (ICP) and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) were determined. Results. Seven of 10 patients with lung infection received amphotericin B (AMB) induction therapy (6 with 5-flucytosine [5-FC] for a median of 2 weeks); median duration of therapy including azole eradication therapy was 41 weeks, with a complete/partial clinical response in 78 . For neurologic disease, 88 of patients received AMB, 78 with 5-FC, for a median of 6 weeks. The median total course was 18 months. Nine patients receiving fluconazole induction therapy were reinduced with AMB plus 5-FC for clinical failure. Raised ICP (31 patients) was associated with initial abnormal neurology, and neurologic sequelae and/or death at 12 months (both P = .02); cerebrospinal fluid drains/shunts were placed in 58 of patients and in 64 of 22 patients with hydrocephalus. IRIS developed 2-12 months after starting antifungals in 8 patients, who presented with new/enlarging brain lesions. Risk factors included female sex, brain involvement at presentation, and higher median CD4 counts (all P
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)543 - 551
Number of pages9
JournalClinical Infectious Diseases
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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