Lung transplant (LTx) patients have an increased risk of developing invasive fungal infections (IFIs), particularly invasive aspergillosis. Rapid identification of the causative fungal pathogen, to allow for early administration of appropriate initial antifungal therapy, in LTx patients has been challenging due to the limited sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic tools. Hence, there is increasing emphasis on antifungal prophylaxis in the LTx setting, given the high mortality rates and substantial cost of treating IFIs. Evidence for the optimal antifungal prophylactic approach in this setting, however, remains scant and inconsistent. This review will briefly discuss the epidemiology, risk factors, timing and clinical manifestations of fungal infections in LTx patients and will focus primarily on the available evidence related to the efficacy, safety and practicality of current prophylactic strategies in LTx recipients as well as challenges and gaps for future research.
- Fungal infections