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Worldwide cancer incidence and mortality have always been a concern to the community. The cancer mortality rate has generally declined over the years; however, there is still an increased mortality rate in poorer countries that receives considerable attention from healthcare professionals. This suggested the importance of the prompt detection, effective treatment, and prevention strategies. The genus Streptomyces has been documented as a prolific producer of biologically active secondary metabolites. Streptomycetes from mangrove environments attract researchers' attention due to their ability to synthesize diverse, interesting bioactive metabolites. The present review highlights research on mangrove-derived streptomycetes and the production of anticancer-related compounds from these microorganisms. Research studies conducted between 2008 and 2019, specifically mentioning the isolation of streptomycetes from mangrove areas and described the successful purification of compound(s) or generation of crude extracts with cytotoxic activity against human cancer cell lines, were compiled in this review. It is anticipated that there will be an increase in prospects for mangrove-derived streptomycetes as one of the natural resources for the isolation of chemotherapeutic agents.
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