Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against reactivated HIV-1-Infected Cells

Wen Shi Lee, Jonathan Richard, Marit Lichtfuss, Amos B. Smith III, Jongwoo Park, Joel R. Courter, Bruno N. Melillo, Joseph G. Sodroski, Daniel E. Kaufmann, Andrés Finzi, Matthew S. Parsons, Stephen J. Kent

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Lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV-1 does not diminish the established latent reservoir. A possible cure approach is to reactivate the quiescent genome from latency and utilize immune responses to eliminate cells harboring reactivated HIV-1. It is not known whether antibodies within HIV-1-infected individuals can recognize and eliminate cells reactivated from latency through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). We found that reactivation of HIV-1 expression in the latently infected ACH-2 cell line elicited antibody-mediated NK cell activation but did not result in antibody-mediated killing. The lack of CD4 expression on these HIV-1 envelope (Env)-expressing cells likely resulted in poor recognition of CD4-induced antibody epitopes on Env. To examine this further, cultured primary CD4+ T cells from HIV-1+ subjects were used as targets for ADCC. These ex vivo-expanded primary cells were modestly susceptible to ADCC mediated by autologous or heterologous HIV-1+ serum antibodies. Importantly, ADCC mediated against these primary cells could be enhanced following incubation with a CD4-mimetic compound (JP-III-48) that exposes CD4-induced antibody epitopes on Env. Our studies suggest that with sufficient reactivation and expression of appropriate Env epitopes, primary HIV-1-infected cells can be targets for ADCC mediated by autologous serum antibodies and innate effector cells. The results of this study suggest that further investigation into the potential of ADCC to eliminate reactivated latently infected cells is warranted.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2021-2030
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Virology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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Lee, W. S., Richard, J., Lichtfuss, M., Smith III, A. B., Park, J., Courter, J. R., Melillo, B. N., Sodroski, J. G., Kaufmann, D. E., Finzi, A., Parsons, M. S., & Kent, S. J. (2016). Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against reactivated HIV-1-Infected Cells. Journal of Virology, 90(4), 2021-2030.