Multiple drug (antibiotic) resistance (MDR) has become a major threat to the treatment of typhoid and other infectious diseases. Since the 1970s, this threat has increased in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, driven in part by the emergence of successful genetic clades, such as haplotype H58, associated with the MDR phenotype. H58 S. Typhi can express multiple antibiotic resistance determinants while retaining the ability to efficiently transmit and persist within the human population. The recent identification of extensively drug resistant S. Typhi only highlights the dangers of ignoring this threat. Here we discuss the evolution of the S. Typhi MDR phenotype and consider options for management.
- multiple drug resistance
- S. Typhi