Anti-snake venom activities of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) against Russell's viper venom: Characterization of piperine as active principle

P. A. Shenoy, S. S. Nipate, J. M. Sonpetkar, N. C. Salvi, A. B. Waghmare, P. D. Chaudhari

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21 Citations (Scopus)


Ethnopharmacological relevance Piper longum L. fruits have been traditionally used against snakebites in north-eastern and southern region of India. Aim of the study To examine the ability of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L.; Piperaceae (PLE) and piperine, one of the main active principles of Piper longum, to inhibit the Russell's viper (Doboia russelii, Viperidae) snake venom activities. Materials and methods Anti-snake venom activities of ethanolic extract of fruits of Piper longum L. (Piperaceae) and piperine against Russell's viper venom was studied in embryonated fertile chicken eggs, mice and rats by using various models as follows: inhibition of venom lethal action, inhibition of venom haemorrhagic action (in vitro), inhibition of venom haemorrhagic action (in vivo), inhibition of venom necrotizing action, inhibition of venom defibrinogenating action, inhibition of venom induced paw edema, inhibition of venom induced mast cell degranulation, creatine kinase assay and assay for catalase activity. Results PLE was found to inhibit the venom induced haemorrhage in embryonated fertile chicken eggs. Administration of PLE and piperine significantly (p<0.01) inhibited venom induced lethality, haemorrhage, necrosis, defibrinogenation and inflammatory paw edema in mice in a dose dependent manner. PLE and piperine also significantly (p<0.01) reduced venom induced mast cell degranulation in rats. Venom induced decrease in catalase enzyme levels in mice kidney tissue and increase in creatine kinase enzyme levels in mice serum were significantly (p<0.01) reversed by administration of both PLE and piperine. Conclusions PLE possesses good anti-snake venom properties and piperine is one of the compounds responsible for the effective venom neutralizing ability of the plant.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)373-382
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Ethnopharmacology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 20 May 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Anti-snake venom activity
  • Antivenom
  • Doboia russelii
  • Piper longum
  • Piperine
  • Russell's viper

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