Anti-mullerian hormone is required for chicken embryonic urogenital system growth but not sexual differentiation

Luke S Lambeth, Katie L Ayers, Andrew D Cutting, Timothy J Doran, Andrew H Sinclair, Craig A Smith

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In mammals, the primary role of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) during development is the regression of Mullerian ducts in males. These structures otherwise develop into fallopian tubes, oviducts, and upper vagina, as in females. This highly conserved function is retained in birds and is supported by the high levels of AMH expression in developing testes. In mammals, AMH expression is controlled partly by the transcription factor, SOX9. However, in the chicken, AMH mRNA expression precedes that of SOX9 , leading to the view that AMH may lie upstream of SOX9 and play a more central role in avian testicular development. To help define the role of AMH in chicken gonad development, we suppressed AMH expression in chicken embryos using RNA interference. In males, AMH knockdown did not affect the expression of key testis pathway genes, and testis cords developed normally. However, a reduction in the size of the mesonephros and gonads was observed, a phenotype that was evident in both sexes. This growth defect occurred as a result of the reduced proliferative capacity of the cells of these tissues, and male gonads also had a significant reduction in germ cell numbers. These data suggest that although AMH does not directly contribute to testicular or ovarian differentiation, it is required in a sex-independent manner for proper cell proliferation and urogenital system growth.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1 - 12
Number of pages12
JournalBiology of Reproduction
Volume93
Issue number6 (Art. No: 138)
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

Cite this

Lambeth, Luke S ; Ayers, Katie L ; Cutting, Andrew D ; Doran, Timothy J ; Sinclair, Andrew H ; Smith, Craig A. / Anti-mullerian hormone is required for chicken embryonic urogenital system growth but not sexual differentiation. In: Biology of Reproduction. 2015 ; Vol. 93, No. 6 (Art. No: 138). pp. 1 - 12.
@article{7bd04f8bb14c4e7bb93ef16864dbf9c5,
title = "Anti-mullerian hormone is required for chicken embryonic urogenital system growth but not sexual differentiation",
abstract = "In mammals, the primary role of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) during development is the regression of Mullerian ducts in males. These structures otherwise develop into fallopian tubes, oviducts, and upper vagina, as in females. This highly conserved function is retained in birds and is supported by the high levels of AMH expression in developing testes. In mammals, AMH expression is controlled partly by the transcription factor, SOX9. However, in the chicken, AMH mRNA expression precedes that of SOX9 , leading to the view that AMH may lie upstream of SOX9 and play a more central role in avian testicular development. To help define the role of AMH in chicken gonad development, we suppressed AMH expression in chicken embryos using RNA interference. In males, AMH knockdown did not affect the expression of key testis pathway genes, and testis cords developed normally. However, a reduction in the size of the mesonephros and gonads was observed, a phenotype that was evident in both sexes. This growth defect occurred as a result of the reduced proliferative capacity of the cells of these tissues, and male gonads also had a significant reduction in germ cell numbers. These data suggest that although AMH does not directly contribute to testicular or ovarian differentiation, it is required in a sex-independent manner for proper cell proliferation and urogenital system growth.",
author = "Lambeth, {Luke S} and Ayers, {Katie L} and Cutting, {Andrew D} and Doran, {Timothy J} and Sinclair, {Andrew H} and Smith, {Craig A}",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1095/biolreprod.115.131664",
language = "English",
volume = "93",
pages = "1 -- 12",
journal = "Biology of Reproduction",
issn = "0006-3363",
publisher = "Society for the Study of Reproduction",
number = "6 (Art. No: 138)",

}

Anti-mullerian hormone is required for chicken embryonic urogenital system growth but not sexual differentiation. / Lambeth, Luke S; Ayers, Katie L; Cutting, Andrew D; Doran, Timothy J; Sinclair, Andrew H; Smith, Craig A.

In: Biology of Reproduction, Vol. 93, No. 6 (Art. No: 138), 2015, p. 1 - 12.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Anti-mullerian hormone is required for chicken embryonic urogenital system growth but not sexual differentiation

AU - Lambeth, Luke S

AU - Ayers, Katie L

AU - Cutting, Andrew D

AU - Doran, Timothy J

AU - Sinclair, Andrew H

AU - Smith, Craig A

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - In mammals, the primary role of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) during development is the regression of Mullerian ducts in males. These structures otherwise develop into fallopian tubes, oviducts, and upper vagina, as in females. This highly conserved function is retained in birds and is supported by the high levels of AMH expression in developing testes. In mammals, AMH expression is controlled partly by the transcription factor, SOX9. However, in the chicken, AMH mRNA expression precedes that of SOX9 , leading to the view that AMH may lie upstream of SOX9 and play a more central role in avian testicular development. To help define the role of AMH in chicken gonad development, we suppressed AMH expression in chicken embryos using RNA interference. In males, AMH knockdown did not affect the expression of key testis pathway genes, and testis cords developed normally. However, a reduction in the size of the mesonephros and gonads was observed, a phenotype that was evident in both sexes. This growth defect occurred as a result of the reduced proliferative capacity of the cells of these tissues, and male gonads also had a significant reduction in germ cell numbers. These data suggest that although AMH does not directly contribute to testicular or ovarian differentiation, it is required in a sex-independent manner for proper cell proliferation and urogenital system growth.

AB - In mammals, the primary role of anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) during development is the regression of Mullerian ducts in males. These structures otherwise develop into fallopian tubes, oviducts, and upper vagina, as in females. This highly conserved function is retained in birds and is supported by the high levels of AMH expression in developing testes. In mammals, AMH expression is controlled partly by the transcription factor, SOX9. However, in the chicken, AMH mRNA expression precedes that of SOX9 , leading to the view that AMH may lie upstream of SOX9 and play a more central role in avian testicular development. To help define the role of AMH in chicken gonad development, we suppressed AMH expression in chicken embryos using RNA interference. In males, AMH knockdown did not affect the expression of key testis pathway genes, and testis cords developed normally. However, a reduction in the size of the mesonephros and gonads was observed, a phenotype that was evident in both sexes. This growth defect occurred as a result of the reduced proliferative capacity of the cells of these tissues, and male gonads also had a significant reduction in germ cell numbers. These data suggest that although AMH does not directly contribute to testicular or ovarian differentiation, it is required in a sex-independent manner for proper cell proliferation and urogenital system growth.

UR - http://www.biolreprod.org/content/93/6/138.full.pdf+html

U2 - 10.1095/biolreprod.115.131664

DO - 10.1095/biolreprod.115.131664

M3 - Article

VL - 93

SP - 1

EP - 12

JO - Biology of Reproduction

JF - Biology of Reproduction

SN - 0006-3363

IS - 6 (Art. No: 138)

ER -