Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) is the most common surgical operation for cervical radiculopathy and/or myelopathy in patients who have failed conservative treatment. Since the operation was first described by Cloward and Smith and Robinson in 1958, a variety refinements in technique, graft material and implants have been made. In particular, there is a need for safe osteoinductive agents that could benefit selected patients. The ovine model has been shown to have anatomical, biomechanical, bone density and radiological properties that are similar to the human counterpart, the most similar level being C3/4. It is therefore an ideal model in which preclinical studies can be performed. In particular this methodology may be useful to researchers interested in evaluating different devices and biologics, including stem cells, for potential application in human spinal surgery.