Angiosperm leaf vein evolution was physiologically and environmentally transformative

C Boyce, Timothy Brodribb, Taylor Feild, Maciej Zwieniecki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

310 Citations (Scopus)


The veins that irrigate leaves during photosynthesis are demonstrated to be strikingly more abundant in flowering plants than in any other vascular plant lineage. Angiosperm vein densities average 8 mm of vein per mm(-2) of leaf area and can reach 25 mm mm(-2), whereas such high densities are absent from all other plants, living or extinct.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1771 - 1776
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Issue number1663
Publication statusPublished - 2009
Externally publishedYes

Cite this