The inviability of diploid androgenetic and parthenogenetic embryos suggests imprinting of paternal and maternal genes during germ cell development, and differential expression of loci depending on parental inheritance appears to be involved. To facilitate identification of imprinted genes, we have derived diploid androgenetic embryonic stem (ES) cell lines. In contrast to normal ES cells, they form tumors composed almost entirely of striated muscle when injected subcutaneously into adult mice. They also form chimeras following blastocyst injection, although many chimeras die at early postnatal stages. Surviving chimeras develop skeletal abnormalities, particularly in the rib cartilage. These results demonstrate that androgenetic ES cells are pluripotent and point to stage- and cell-specific expression of developmentally important imprinted genes.